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CBD Glossary

Updated: Apr 4

An abundance of new terms have entered our daily vocabulary due to the ever-growing CBD industry. If you're one among the millions of individuals who are curious about the possible health advantages that CBD may offer, this glossary is a useful tool.

Cannabidiol (CBD)

Whether you're looking to purchase a CBD based product for yourself, or perhaps you want to learn more about one of the fastest growing health and wellness movements in history.

Either way, you may securely traverse the world of CBD and make wise decisions with the aid of our glossary of frequently used terminology and their definitions.

Core glossary of CBD-related terms
An alphabetical list of words relating to CBD (Cannabidiol).



2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid that activates the CB1 receptor. This endocannabinoid is involved in the physiological processes that regulate emotion, cognition, pain, and neuroinflammation.



A substance added to food in small quantities to improve the taste, appearance or preserve it.


An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. Endocannabinoids such as 2-AG and Anandamide are agonists of both the CB1 and CB2 receptors within the endocannabinoid system. THC is a direct (and powerful) agonist of the CB1 receptors found in the brain and central nervous system, which is why it has psychoactive effects. CBD, on the other hand, acts as an antagonist to CB1 receptors, which explains why it has the ability to modulate the negative effects of THC by blocking it from activating the CB1 receptors.

Alcohol Extraction

Alcohol extraction is a commonly used extraction method for cannabis to create concentrates for tinctures. During alcohol extraction for the CBD market, dried hemp is first covered in alcohol. This step is often referred to as ‘the wash’. Next the alcohol is separated from the plant material using filters. Then the alcohol is evaporated, leaving behind the whole plant extract (Full Spectrum). This extract may undergo additional processes to remove any trace amounts of THC; but during those processes, alcohol will no longer be used.


Anandamide, also known as ‘the bliss molecule’ is one of the two main endocannabinoids that our bodies produce, the other being 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Levels of anandamide increase naturally when we exercise, and it’s thought to be responsible for the rewarding feeling that exercise promotes, like the “runner’s high”. Anandamide also plays a role in memory and motivation and helps to reduce our sensitivity to pain. Anandamide breaks down quite quickly, and low levels of anandamide are shown to correlate with pain and mental health issues. CBD can help to maintain high levels of anandamide by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks it down (see ECS) so it stays active for longer. This is the main reason why CBD is showing such positive results across physical and mental health conditions.


An antibacterial agent is one that destroys or interferes with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Researchers have found CBD to have a similar potency to common antibiotics when looking at its ability to kill bacteria. The lab studies also show that CBD is far less likely to cause resistance which is welcome news when compared against the growing rate of antibiotic resistance globally.


Anticonvulsant (also known as anti-epileptic or anti-seizure) drugs are commonly used to treat epilepsy. They are also increasingly being used to treat migraines, bipolar disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Studies have found CBD to be an effective anticonvulsant with the advantage of being non-addictive and causing fewer adverse effects compared with the pharmaceutical alternatives.


Anti-fungal medications are used to treat and prevent fungal infections (mycoses) such as athlete’s foot, ringworm, and candidiasis (thrush). One of the key functions of CBD within the cannabis plant is to protect the leaves and flowers from fungal infections. These anti-fungal effects in CBD have been shown to translate to humans by stopping the fungus cells from multiplying and creating an environment where they begin to die off.


Inflammation is the body’s way of protecting itself after injury and the symptoms include swelling and pain. Certain chronic pain conditions are caused when the immune system triggers an inflammatory response unnecessarily, causing damage to its own tissues. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs or steroids are commonly prescribed for inflammatory conditions. However, long term use of such drugs can have adverse effects. Studies have shown that CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, as well as suppressing inflammatory responses.


Antiemetic drugs are used to prevent nausea and vomiting. They are commonly used to treat morning sickness, motion sickness, the side effects of opioids and general anaesthetic, and chemotherapy induced nausea. There is considerable evidence to demonstrate that cannabinoids like CBD have a powerful antiemetic and anti-nausea effect.


Antioxidants are substances that can protect your cells against the effects of molecules called free radicals that contribute to diseases such as Alzheimer’s, dementia, Parkinson’s, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Scientists have been aware of CBD’s incredibly effective antioxidant properties for over 20 years. A 1998 study helped to advocate the use of CBD to help prevent myriad diseases caused by rapid oxidation of cells.


Antipsychotic drugs are used to control psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, mania, severe depression, and paranoia. Experts from King’s College London say that CBD could help to ‘reset’ the brains of people with psychotic conditions such as bi-polar disorder and schizophrenia. Studies into exactly how it works are ongoing; however, the results are showing that CBD could represent a new class of treatment to replace traditional antipsychotic drugs. It is also showing positive results for reversing psychosis associated with chronic cannabis use.


Anxiolytics are a range of medications that inhibit anxiety. They are common in the ongoing treatment of anxiety disorders and their associated psychological and physical symptoms. Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, and antidepressants are all prescribed as anxiolytics. There are multiple studies showcasing the benefits of CBD as an effective alternative to anxiolytics.



The proportion of a drug which enters the circulation when introduced into the body and, therefore, is able to have an active effect. The bioavailability of CBD depends on the administration method. Vaping CBD or taking CBD sublingually (under the tongue) via oral drops (tinctures) are the most effective methods for getting the CBD directly into your bloodstream.

Biphasic effect

This is a term that describes the effects when a substance acts in two different ways as the concentration increases. Low and high doses can have very different effects.

Broad spectrum

Broad spectrum refers to the whole plant extract that is taken from certified strains of hemp. Within this extract you will find an abundance of CBD, as CBD is the main cannabinoid in hemp. You will also find a wide range of terpenes and flavonoids, as well as all of the other cannabinoids contained in the hemp strain. The difference between broad spectrum and full spectrum is that broad spectrum has the THC element completely removed during a secondary refinement process.


Cannabichromene - CBC

As one of the top 10 cannabinoids present in plants from the cannabis family, research into CBC is showing positive results for its anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antioxidant properties. It is found in relatively low levels within hemp but can contribute to the beneficial effects of CBD when present in a broad spectrum or full spectrum extract.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of over 100 active cannabinoids found in plants from the cannabis family. It is second only to THC for its abundance within cannabis, and accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s make-up. CBD has exploded in popularity in recent years and studies are revealing its efficacy in helping a number of pain, anxiety, and sleep disorders as well as many neurological and gastrointestinal diseases.

Cannabidivarin - CBDV

One of the top 10 cannabinoids present in plants from the cannabis family, CBDV is a less potent version of CBD. It has anti-nausea properties and is a powerful anticonvulsant. A 2012 study showed that CBDV prevented seizures in rats and mice. CBDV can contribute to the beneficial effects of CBD when present in a broad spectrum or full spectrum extract.

Cannabidolic acid - CBDA

One of the top 10 cannabinoids present in plants from the cannabis family, CBDA turns into CBD when heated. CBDA is a strong antiemetic and can be used to treat the side effects of chemotherapy or opioid use. CBDA can contribute to the beneficial effects of CBD when present in a broad spectrum or full spectrum extract.

Cannabigerol - CBG

One of the top 10 cannabinoids present in plants from the cannabis family, CBG is the chemical parent of both CBD and THC. CBG is a powerful vasodilator which causes widening of your blood vessels, lowering blood pressure. CBG is also thought to be effective in treating glaucoma because it reduces intraocular pressure. CBG can contribute to the beneficial effects of CBD when present in a broad spectrum or full spectrum extract.

Cannabigerolic acid - CBGA

Cannabis plants produce cannabigerolic acid and then specific enzymes in the plant break down the CBGA and turn it into either THCA or CBDA. Light or heat energy then change the THCA into THC and the CBDA into CBD. As it is mostly broken down, CBGA presents in very low amounts in cannabis. However, it does have its own beneficial potential, such as as an anti-inflammatory. CBGA can contribute to the effects of CBD when present in a broad spectrum or full spectrum extract.


A cannabinoid is a chemical compound found in plants from the cannabis family. CBD and THC are the two most prevalent and well known cannabinoids. There are at least another 100 known ‘minor’ cannabinoids including CBN, CBG, CBC, and THCV. Cannabinoids have an effect on humans by acting on cannabinoid receptors that are present throughout every system in the body.

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome - CHS

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS), is an extremely rare condition that has been only been diagnosed in heavy, long-term cannabis users. Often mistakenly diagnosed as Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome (CVS), CHS is described as an uncommon form of cannabinoid toxicity that can develop from chronic usage. There is no current evidence to suggest that any CBD users have developed CHS.

Cannabinoid Receptors

Cannabinoid receptors are part of our endocannabinoid system and are activated by endocannabinoids or plant cannabinoids, such as CBD. They sit on the surface of cells and wait for cannabinoids to come along and bind with them. When they get together, they tell your body to ‘do’ certain things to make sure that all of your body’s systems are in balance. There are two major cannabinoid receptors that are the best studied. CB1 receptors are primarily located within the brain / central nervous system, as well as in the lungs, liver and kidneys. CB2 receptors are mainly found in the immune system, spleen, and gastrointestinal system.

Cannabinol - CBN

One of the top 10 cannabinoids present in plants from the cannabis family, CBN is the latest hot topic in cannabinoid research. When THC is oxidised, the process converts the THC to CBN. Interestingly, CBN was previously thought to be responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis before THC was discovered. It has potential for combatting pain and inflammation, bone health, and treating skin conditions. It could also be effective for inducing sleep when used in combination with CBD. CBN can contribute to the beneficial effects of CBD when present in a broad spectrum or full spectrum extract.


Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The genus includes three species: cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, and cannabis ruderalis. Hemp and marijuana are both part of the cannabis family of plants, although they serve completely different purposes.

Cannabis Indica

One of the subspecies of cannabis is called Indica. The hemp that is used in legal CBD products cannot be indica as all hemp is sativa based. However, the terpene profiles of famous indica strains are replicated within many legally available hemp CBD oil products. Aesthetically, the indica plants are short, sturdy and bushy with wide leaves. They are a far darker shade of forest green and grow far more quickly than sativa. They originate from the Hindu Kush mountains in the Middle East and are commonly grown in countries such as Afghanistan, Morocco and the Indian subcontinent. Their flavour/terpene profile ranges from pungent to sweet and fruity.

Cannabis Sativa

One of the subspecies of cannabis is called Sativa and all hemp is classified as sativa. Aesthetically, varieties of cannabis sativa plants grow tall and thin and have narrow leaves. They are a light shade of green and require lots of light to grow. They originate from countries that are close to the equator within Central/South America and Southeast Asia. However, the hemp variety of the cannabis sativa plant species have been cultivated to grow taller, in more dense crops, and in more adverse climate conditions than the rest of the cannabis family. Their flavour/terpene profile ranges from earthy to sweet and fruity.

CBD Isolate

CBD Isolate is created when the whole plant extract from hemp is refined to remove every component other than CBD leaving >99% pure CBD.

Certificate of analysis (COA) / Lab certificates

A certificate of analysis or lab report should be provided as verification that the CBD product contains what it says on the label and is free of dangerous heavy metals and solvents. These reports can contain exact measurements of cannabinoids found in the product, heavy metals testing, solvent tests and terpene levels in the final product. A high-quality lab report should be completed by a third party and include batch numbers so that products can be matched to the results.

Carrier oil

Carrier oils are those that are used to dilute essential oils ready for application. These are usually made from vegetable oils such as coconut or avocado. In the case of CBD the most common are coconut oil (MCT oil), hemp seed oil and olive oil. Often carrier oils are odourless with a slightly nutty flavour. This taste can often be detected when you take CBD under the tongue.


In health terms, chronic refers to a condition that persists for longer than 12 weeks despite medication and treatment and is used often in reference to pain conditions.

CO2 Extraction

In order to extract cannabinoids such as CBD from the hemp plant, manufacturers of high quality CBD may choose to use a CO2 extraction method. During CO2 extraction, the hemp is submitted to low temperatures and high pressure. It is quite a complex process; however, because it eliminates the need for chemicals, it is the safest and cleanest way to obtain pure cannabinoids.

Cold-pressed CBD

Cold-pressed CBD is a product type made using the ancient method of cold pressing. This method has been utilised for millennia as a gentle way of extracting compounds from plants.

The plant material is mixed with a carrier oil such as olive oil and then pressurised. This method uses minimal heat, which helps to preserve the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids found in the hemp plant.


This is a common term used amongst cannabis and CBD consumers. A concentrate describes a substance where by the diluting agent is either reduced or removed altogether to produce a higher purity product (80-99%).

A CBD oil is usually diluted with hemp seed or MCT oil, this is referred to as a carrier oil. A concentrate will not have any of these additional ingredients. Examples include CBD crystal isolate, wax, shatter, crumble or live resin. These are normally consumed as dabs (a method of vaporisation) which are inhaled for fast acting effects.

Controlled Substances

The United Kingdom Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 aimed to control the possession and supply of numerous listed drugs and drug-like substances as a controlled substance. The act allowed and regulated the use of some controlled drugs by various persons (e.g. doctors) acting in their professional capacity. Cannabis, and specifically THC, are still classed as Class B controlled drugs in the UK. CBD was declassified in 2016 and has since been legal.


Cultivation is the act of caring for plants and the preparation of land for the growth of crops. In regards to CBD, the cultivation practices employed by the hemp farmers will determine the quality of their hemp and, in turn, the quality of the CBD extract.



The dictionary definition is the removal or elimination of a carboxyl from a molecule. With regards to cannabinoids this is the process whereby heat is applied to CBDa to convert it to the more desired CBD. The same process is used for converting THCa to THC and CBGa to CBG.

Delta 9 THC

See Tetrahydrocannabinol - THC.


CBD distillate is highly-purified thick, golden amber liquid that is produced when hemp extract is winterised in ethanol and then distilled.


Dosage can refer to the size or the frequency of a dose of medicine. In relation to CBD, the amount of CBD you should take can be affected by factors such as your weight and the severity of the condition you are looking to treat. In lieu of definitive guidelines, the advice is to start with a small dose and gradually increase. Be mindful of the effects of the dose before taking more - this will prevent you from raising your tolerance too quickly, and will allow you to figure out what the right dose is for you.

Drug Testing

When police or employers utilise drug testing methods, they are screening for controlled substances that are prohibited for sale and use in the UK. This includes cannabis; however, what they are actually looking for is the presence of THC or THC metabolites - not CBD.



In the world of CBD, edibles refer to a food substance that has been infused with cannabinoids. Typical edibles you will come across will be gummies, candies, chocolate, and capsules. The advantage with edibles is that you know precisely what dose of CBD each edible contains. One key disadvantage with edibles is that they have lower bioavailability than other methods of CBD delivery. As they have to be digested before the CBD can be absorbed into the bloodstream, the benefits won’t be felt as quickly.


Endocannabinoids or endogenous cannabinoids are cannabinoids that are produced within the body (Endo being a prefix from Greek meaning ‘from within’). They are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters (messengers) that bind to cannabinoid receptors throughout the endocannabinoid system. The function of endocannabinoids is to keep our body regulated and balanced. Deficiency in endocannabinoids contributes to the development of a number of health conditions. Experts believe that replacing the missing endocannabinoids with cannabinoids from cannabis can help restore the balance.

Endocannabinoid System - ECS

The endocannabinoid system is absolutely crucial to the correct functioning and health of every system in your body. It is the infrastructure throughout your body that enables you to produce, utilise, and dispose of cannabinoids that have either been made by you, or consumed by you. The ECS comprises of three components: cannabinoid receptors on the surface of cells, endocannabinoids that activate the cannabinoid receptors, and metabolic enzymes that break down the endocannabinoids once they’ve been used. When cannabinoid receptors in the ECS are activated, they check what’s going on in your various systems before they tell the body what to do next.

Entourage Effect

The phenomenon known as the entourage effect occurs when the many natural compounds of a plant interact together within the human body to produce a stronger impact than any single compound used in isolation. Even though the individual compounds may in fact share some of the same beneficial uses, the entourage effect means that the results are multiplied. In this sense, full spectrum extracts from the cannabis plant epitomise Aristotle’s famous phrase ‘the whole is greater than the sum of its parts’.


An extract is a preparation containing the active ingredients of a substance in concentrated form. The first extract from the cannabis plant is known as the whole plant extract, or full spectrum. This extract contains all of the active cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids contained within the plant.



These are a phytonutrient found in fruits and vegetables that give them their vivid colours. Like other phytonutrients, flavonoids are powerful antioxidants with anti-inflammatory and immune system benefits. A full spectrum or broad spectrum hemp extract will contain all the flavonoids from the plant. This contributes to the entourage effect.


Food supplement

A food supplement is a manufactured product containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, herbs or other active ingredients that can be eaten or swallowed. Food supplements can be produced through extraction from natural products or synthesising the chosen nutrient. CBD is sold as a food supplement in the UK.



Full-spectrum refers to the cannabinoids and terpenes in the oil produced from the cannabis or hemp plant. Also known as whole-plant, a full-spectrum oil will contain all of the naturally occurring cannabinoids. This is unlike a broad-spectrum product that will only include a select few. Some people prefer a full-spectrum product because the full range of cannabinoids contributes to the aforementioned entourage effect. The inclusion of all of the cannabinoids means that any THC in the plant will also be present. However, in EU certified strains of hemp, the THC content of the plant must be >0.2% which is considered to have little to no psychoactive effects.


Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)

A GMO is an organism that has been modified in a lab to favour certain traits. This can increase resistance to pests, grow larger, or increase nutritional value. Critics claim that GMOs are detrimental to the ecosystem, including human health.


Heavy metals

A heavy metal is a dense metal that is usually toxic at low concentrations. These include but are not limited to lead, mercury and arsenic. This is something that is often tested for in CBD oils as the hemp plant is a bio-accumulator and can easily absorb these from the ground and any nutrients used as part of the growing process.


Hemp is a strain of cannabis sativa that is grown specifically for industrial uses. It has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of CBD. Uses for industrial hemp include making rope, textiles, paper, bioplastics, insulation, fuel, shoes, hemp seed oil and extracting CBD. It's enormous range of applications make it possibly the most important plant on earth.

Hemp oil

Also known as hemp seed oil, hemp oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Unrefined, cold pressed hemp oil is green in colour with a nutty flavour. Hemp oil has many benefits as it includes a high concentration of protein, omega-6, omega-3, and vitamin E. It is great for skin and a fantastic addition to the human diet. However, it contains no cannabinoids and so shouldn’t be confused with CBD oil. Some companies have been marketing their products as containing CBD oil when in fact they contain hemp oil. To be sure that what you’re buying contains CBD, check the label for the terms CBD, cannabinoids, or hemp extract.


Hybrid is a term used to refer to cannabis strains that have been bred to include elements of both Cannabis Sativa and Cannabis Indica plants.



Indica, aka Cannabis Indica, is a member of the cannabis plant family. Indica plants are usually grown for their high THC levels, but with selective breeding, there are now a number of high CBD low THC varieties that are used by some brands.

Industrial hemp

Industrial hemp is a cultivar of cannabis grown for commercial use for the fibres contained in the stems or for its seeds and its cannabinoid-rich flowers.


A pure source of CBD (usually 99%), where during the extraction process, everything naturally found in the plant removed. This includes any trace of THC, terpenes, waxes, oils and chlorophyll. CBD isolate usually comes as a crystal or a powder.



Ketones are produced by the liver to convert glucose into energy.



MCTs (medium-chain triglycerides) are found in abundance in food products such as coconut oil, olive oil, soybeans and avocados. Some of the best CBD oral drops use MCT as the carrier for the CBD. They are safe for human consumption and improve the bioavailability of CBD, allowing more to reach the bloodstream.


The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is a government body which was set up in 2003 to bring together the functions of the Medicines Control Agency (MCA) and the Medical Devices Agency (MDA). In 2016 the MHRA announced their decision to class Cannabidiol (CBD) as a medicine. As yet no official medicinal licenses for CBD have been granted. This in no way affects the legality of CBD - all it means is that CBD vendors have to be careful not to make any overt medicinal claims, and balance any positive benefits with any associated risks.


Novel Foods and the FSA

The FSA is the Food Standards Agency for the UK. The FSA is responsible for ensuring the safety, regulation, and hygiene of all food products in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Scotland has their own organisation, called Food Standards Scotland.

Novel Foods is a set of regulations introduced by the EU and implemented by the FSA. These regulations relate to CBD and other food supplements. All food supplements must prove their safety before being sold, applicants must submit toxicology reports, manufacturing processes, ingredients, and safety information to prove that they are safe to eat.


Omega oils

Omega fats are well known as they are associated with a healthy diet and a reduced risk of heart disease. They are commonly found in oily fish such as mackerel and sardines. They are also found in vegetable oil, nuts and seeds.

Hemp seeds have both Omega 6 and Omega 3 fats. They are considered to be well balanced with a 3:1 ratio in favour of Omega 6, which is great for heart health.


Opioids are a class of drugs that include the Class A drug heroin. Synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl, tramadol, codeine, and morphine are prescribed for moderate and severe chronic pain when there has been no response to standard painkillers. They are highly addictive and overdoses can be fatal. Cannabinoids like CBD could provide a natural alternative to opioid use. CBD is non addictive and has only minor side effects in high doses. Research also suggests that CBD could be used to help treat opioid addiction.


Organic products are those that are grown using no artificial fertilisers or pesticides and produced with no artificial colours or preservatives. This is important when growing hemp as it is a bioaccumulator and can absorb heavy metals and dangerous chemicals from these products.



Chemical compounds used to kill pests such as insects and rodents, weeds and fungi which may damage crops. The term pesticides also includes herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. By their very nature they are harmful to animals and potentially humans.

Phytocannabinoid The prefix Phyto comes from the Greek word for plant; therefore, phytocannabinoid literally translates to plant cannabinoid.


Also known as phytochemicals, phytonutrients are produced by plants to protect them from insect attacks and UV rays. They are believed to contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They may also enhance immunity, repair DNA damage from exposure to toxins, detoxify carcinogens and alter oestrogen metabolism. In order to benefit fully from the phytonutrients from the hemp plant, consider a full spectrum or broad spectrum product. These phytonutrients are what give plants their bright colours.

Propylene Glycol (PG)

PG is a preservative used in the food industry. It is colourless and has a slightly sweet taste. It is used as a base for CBD vape liquids along with Vegetable Glycerine (VG).


A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, and behaviour. In cannabis, the psychoactive component is THC. CBD is completely non-psychoactive and non-intoxicating.



Sativa, aka Cannabis Sativa L., is a member of the cannabis plant family. Cannabis Sativa L plants are grown as a source of textile fibres (harvested from the stems) and CBD (harvested from the flowers). Within the Cannabis Sativa L. family, there are other classifications, one of which is hemp, which is commonly used by the wellness industry to extract cannabinoids such as CBD and CBG.


A solvent is a chemical used to dissolve, extract or suspend another material. In relation to CBD this refers to a method of extraction whereby alcohol is used to extract the phytocannabinoids.


In botany, the term strain refers to variations found within plant cultivars. It also refers to the offspring that descend from modified plants. These plants are either produced by biotechnological methods or through regular breeding. Hemp is a strain of the cannabis sativa plant that is bred for industrial purposes. The recent demand for CBD products has led to hemp being bred to create strains that are extremely high in CBD and low in THC. Only hemp strains that have <0.2% THC content are certified by the EU.


Sublingual literally means “under the tongue”. This refers to a method of CBD consumption whereby the liquid is held under the tongue to absorb the active ingredients.



Terpenes are aromatic oils that give cannabis (and other plants) their particular aromas and taste. More than 120 cannabis terpenes have been identified. They exist in varying proportions in cannabis strains and are known to have different effects on humans and animals. When included in a full spectrum or broad spectrum extract, terpenes contribute to the entourage effect.


THC, or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is one of over 100 active cannabinoids found in plants from the cannabis family. It is the most abundant phytocannabinoid and is notorious for its high-inducing properties. When THC enters the body, it mimics anandamide and binds to CB1 cannabinoid receptors which are found in the brain and central nervous system. This means that THC does have amazing health benefits in its own right - specifically the treatment of pain, muscle spasticity, insomnia, glaucoma, nausea, and low appetite. However, it is far more potent than anandamide and the powerful effects are intoxicating and psychoactive.

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCa)

THCa is the precursor and raw form of THC. THCa itself is non-intoxicating but when heated the acid molecule is destroyed creating THC which is known for its high.


A tincture is a type of product where ethanol has been used as a way of extracting the active ingredients. In the CBD world, the tincture is added to a carrier, such as MCT oil, and administered sublingually.


Topicals are designed for application to a particular place on the body. When applied, the ingredients in the topical will enter the body by penetrating the skin and entering the bloodstream. Topical application is just one of the ways of getting the benefits of CBD. People with skincare complaints, or extremely localised pain, have reported positive benefits from using creams infused with CBD extract. Also, CBD infused oils are now a huge part of the massage for wellness industry.

Transdermal patches

Like a topical, a transdermal patch is designed to be applied directly to the skin. The key difference is that a transdermal patch has been designed to deliver CBD to the blood stream.



Vaping refers to the action of inhaling and exhaling the vapour produced by an electronic cigarette (e-cig) or similar device.

Vegetable Glycerin - VG

Vegetable Glycerine (VG) is a colourless, sweet, vegetable based liquid used in the food industry. It is used in conjunction with Propylene Glycol (PG) as a base for CBD e-liquids.

Vitamin E Acetate

Also known as tocopheryl-acetate, vitamin E acetate is the oil derived from vitamin E. Vitamin E is known for its antioxidant properties and is popular as a natural skin conditioning agent. It is commonly found in skincare products and in foods such as green, leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, whole grains, and nuts.


Water soluble

Water soluble means that the product can be dissolved in water.


Wellness is an active process of becoming aware of, and making a deliberate effort to lead a healthy and fulfilling life. It means working towards a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being - rather than just the absence of illness. CBD is widely used by people seeking to achieve wellness. Whether to enhance the relaxation of a massage, to improve general mood, or to promote a better quality of sleep, CBD is showing amazing potential as an addition to commonly used wellness techniques.

Whole plant

A whole plant CBD product is one that has been extracted and used entirely in its raw form without removing any plant lipids, fats, or flavonoids. Whole plant products are often slightly bitter and earthy as they have not been filtered.



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